The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was known from 1821 until 1959 as The Manchester Guardian. Along with its sister papers The Observer and the Guardian Weekly, The Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust. The Trust was created in 1936 "to secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference." The Scott Trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to project the same protections for the Guardian as were originally built into the very structure of the Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than to benefit an owner or shareholders.
The paper's readership is generally on the mainstream left of British political opinion. The newspaper's reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often (but not always) pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or politically correct tendencies.
The Guardian is edited by Katharine Viner, who succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. In 2016, The Guardian's print edition had an average daily circulation of roughly 162,000 copies in the country, behind The Daily Telegraph and The Times. Since 2018 it has been published in tabloid format. The newspaper has an online UK edition as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia (founded in 2013) and Guardian US (founded in 2011). The newspaper's online edition was the fifth most widely read in the world in October 2014, with over 42.6 million readers. Its combined print and online editions reach nearly 9 million British readers.
Notable scoops include the 2011 News International phone hacking scandal, in particular the hacking of murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone. The investigation led to the closure of the UK's biggest selling Sunday newspaper, and one of the highest circulation newspapers in the world, the News of the World. The newspaper also released news of the secret collection of Verizon telephone records held by US President Barack Obama's administration in June 2013, and subsequently revealed the existence of the PRISM surveillance program after it was leaked to the paper by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden. In 2016, it led the investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing the links of then British Prime Minister David Cameron to offshore bank accounts. The Guardian has been named Newspaper of the Year four times at the annual British Press Awards, the most recent in 2014 for reporting on government surveillance. Because of the frequency of the paper's typographical errors, in the 1960s Private Eye dubbed it The Grauniad, a nickname still used today.