The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, and took its current name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust. The Scott Trust was created in 1936 "to secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The Scott Trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to project the same protections for The Guardian as were originally built into the very structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than to benefit an owner or shareholders.
The paper's readership is generally on the mainstream left of British political opinion. The newspaper's reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial, despite the high proportion of privately educated journalists writing for it, has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often (but not always) pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or politically correct tendencies.
The Guardian is edited by Katharine Viner, who succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. In 2016, The Guardian's print edition had an average daily circulation of roughly 162,000 copies in the country, behind The Daily Telegraph and The Times. Since 2018 it has been published in tabloid format. The newspaper has an online UK edition as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia (founded in 2013) and Guardian US (founded in 2011).
As of November 2018, the paper's print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018, as to trust for specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what I see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company (PAMCo) stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK during October 2017 to September 2018. In the PAMCo report, it was also the most read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions; the brands included The Times, The Daily Telegraph, The Independent, and the i. While The Guardian's print circulation is declining, the report indicates that news from The Guardian, including its free web site, reaches more than 23 million UK adults per month.
Notable scoops include the 2011 News International phone hacking scandal, in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone. The investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's biggest selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest circulation newspapers in the world. The newspaper also released news of the secret collection of Verizon telephone records held by US President Barack Obama's administration in June 2013, and subsequently revealed the existence of the PRISM surveillance program after it was leaked to the paper by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden. In 2016, it led the investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing the links of then British Prime Minister David Cameron to offshore bank accounts. The Guardian has been named newspaper of the year four times at the annual British Press Awards, the most recent in 2014 for reporting on government surveillance. Because of the frequency of the paper's typographical errors, in the 1960s Private Eye dubbed it the Grauniad, a nickname still used today.