images links abstract
Wiki Code Copy Tips Home

Scientific method

The scientific method is an empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what is observed, given that cognitive assumptions can distort how one interprets the observation. It involves formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental and measurement-based testing of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings. These are principles of the scientific method, as distinguished from a definitive series of steps applicable to all scientific enterprises.

Though diverse models for the scientific method are available, there is in general a continuous process that includes observations about the natural world. People are naturally inquisitive, so they often come up with questions about things they see or hear, and they often develop ideas or hypotheses about why things are the way they are. The best hypotheses lead to predictions that can be tested in various ways. The most conclusive testing of hypotheses comes from reasoning based on carefully controlled experimental data. Depending on how well additional tests match the predictions, the original hypothesis may require refinement, alteration, expansion or even rejection. If a particular hypothesis becomes very well supported, a general theory may be developed.

Although procedures vary from one field of inquiry to another, they are frequently the same from one to another. The process of the scientific method involves making conjectures (hypotheses), deriving predictions from them as logical consequences, and then carrying out experiments or empirical observations based on those predictions. A hypothesis is a conjecture, based on knowledge obtained while seeking answers to the question. The hypothesis might be very specific, or it might be broad. Scientists then test hypotheses by conducting experiments or studies. A scientific hypothesis must be falsifiable, implying that it is possible to identify a possible outcome of an experiment or observation that conflicts with predictions deduced from the hypothesis; otherwise, the hypothesis cannot be meaningfully tested.

The purpose of an experiment is to determine whether observations agree with or conflict with the predictions derived from a hypothesis. Experiments can take place anywhere from a garage to CERN's Large Hadron Collider. There are difficulties in a formulaic statement of method, however. Though the scientific method is often presented as a fixed sequence of steps, it represents rather a set of general principles. Not all steps take place in every scientific inquiry (nor to the same degree), and they are not always in the same order. Some philosophers and scientists have argued that there is no scientific method; they include physicist Lee Smolin and philosopher Paul Feyerabend (in his Against Method). Robert Nola and Howard Sankey remark that "For some, the whole idea of a theory of scientific method is yester-year's debate, the continuation of which can be summed up as yet more of the proverbial deceased equine castigation. We beg to differ."



Source: Scientific method
Oscar Wilde
Mary Jackson (engineer)
Joaquin Phoenix
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Yoko Ono
Brandon Lee
The Avengers (2012 film)
Gordon Ramsay
Mr. Bean
American Made (film)
Fifth Harmony
James II of England
Cognitive dissonance
Kanye West
Bollywood
Gossip Girl
Cinco de Mayo
BDSM
Richard III of England
Jon Favreau
Liev Schreiber
Lizzie Borden
National Basketball Association
Hope Hicks
Survivor (U.S. TV series)
Varun Dhawan
Synesthesia
Prime number
Dunkirk (2017 film)
Ron Howard
Diana, Princess of Wales
AS Monaco FC
North Korea
Gary Oldman
ABBA
Stanley Tucci
Concorde
List of Nintendo Switch games
Steven Tyler
Gmail
Ann-Margret
Paul Pogba
Thailand
Nick Kroll
List of Game of Thrones characters
October 1997 Loomis Fargo robbery
Adrien Brody
Insurance policy
Detroit
Sally Field
Tinder (app)
Brett Favre
Matthew Perry
Katharine Ross
4chan
One-Punch Man
Gigi Hadid
Aaron Carter
WWE
Jim Nabors
Dark web
List of average human height worldwide
Patriots Day (film)
Tony Blair
Michael B. Jordan
Jimmy Carter
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Absinthe
Sandra Bullock
Idris Elba
Call of Duty
Sri Lanka
Harry Potter (film series)
Mumbai
Mia Farrow
George Best
Jordana Brewster
Miss Universe
Rashida Jones
Watergate scandal
21 Savage
List of United States cities by population
Frida Kahlo
Last Man Standing (U.S. TV series)
Brazil national football team
Dr. Seuss
List of countries by population (United Nations)
Bird
José Mourinho
Kris Wu
Abigail Breslin
List of WWE Champions
Ed Sheeran
Boyd Holbrook
2016–17 UEFA Champions League
Julia Roberts
Nigger
Akshay Kumar
Laura Haddock
Kalpana Chawla
Dylan Minnette
Lionel Messi
The Man in the High Castle
Unsimulated sex
Asia
2017 Atlantic hurricane season
List of most expensive association football transfers
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy
Valentine's Day
Adventure Time
List of The Vampire Diaries episodes
Gujarat
Roman Empire
Interstellar (film)
Mac Miller
Chris Rock
Shailene Woodley
NASA
Colombia
Vanessa Hudgens
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Vera Farmiga
The Wolf of Wall Street (2013 film)
Judy Garland
Power Rangers (film)
Begum Jaan
Marco Asensio
Michael Schumacher
Troian Bellisario
The Imitation Game
Francis II of France
Rebecca Ferguson
Pulp Fiction
Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2
Fridtjof Nansen
The Empire Strikes Back
Kourtney Kardashian
United Airlines
Atlanta (TV series)
Ellie Kemper
American Revolution
Nobel Prize
Cult of Chucky
2001: A Space Odyssey (film)
Jonathan Groff
Elton John
Andrew Garfield
How to Get Away with Murder
Ansel Adams
Homeland (TV series)
Aileen Wuornos
Tom and Jerry
Constantinople
Sons of Anarchy
Olivia de Havilland
Matcha
Rey Mysterio
Nick Offerman
Jeremy Corbyn
Chris Jericho
List of Australian stand-up comedians
Apollo
The Ultimate Fighter: Redemption
John Forbes Nash Jr.
Blackbeard
Tom Selleck
Nelsan Ellis
Ayn Rand
Chester Bennington
Old Man Logan
ICloud leaks of celebrity photos
Cloud computing
Now You See Me 2
Allen Iverson
John Laurens
The Witch (2015 film)
Jamie Foxx
Julia Michaels
List of Sherlock episodes
Boris Johnson
Barbiturate
Shraddha Kapoor
The Young Pope
Rian Johnson
Bee Gees
Rotten Tomatoes
Caitlyn Jenner
Dick Van Dyke
Bowling Green massacre
James Dean
XXX (film series)
Baahubali 2: The Conclusion
Mads Mikkelsen
Zayn Malik
Green Day
Tokyo Ghoul
Kate Winslet
Linkin Park
Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Nokia
TIPS: To create new content for your website or blog...
  1. Enter the title of a Wikipedia article in the box above.
  2. Select your options using the checkboxes, or use default settings.
  3. Click the 'go' button to retrieve the article.
  4. Click the 'Copy Code' button to copy the source code of the article to your clipboard.
  5. Paste the source code into your favorite HTML editor.
  6. Edit the content to suit your needs.
  7. Publish your new content to your website or blog.
  8. IMPORTANT: Before publishing, be sure to make significant changes to avoid creating duplicate content.
buy this site
Custom Website Development