images links abstract
Wiki Code Copy Tips Home

Nelson Mandela

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (; Xhosa: [xolíɬaɬa mandɛ̂ːla]; 18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country's first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) party from 1991 to 1997.

A Xhosa, Mandela was born to the Thembu royal family in Mvezo, British South Africa. He studied law at the University of Fort Hare and the University of Witwatersrand before working as a lawyer in Johannesburg. There he became involved in anti-colonial and African nationalist politics, joining the ANC in 1943 and co-founding its Youth League in 1944. After the National Party's white-only government established apartheid, a system of racial segregation that privileged whites, he and the ANC committed themselves to its overthrow. Mandela was appointed President of the ANC's Transvaal branch, rising to prominence for his involvement in the 1952 Defiance Campaign and the 1955 Congress of the People. He was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the 1956 Treason Trial. Influenced by Marxism, he secretly joined the banned South African Communist Party (SACP). Although initially committed to non-violent protest, in association with the SACP he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1961 and led a sabotage campaign against the government. He was arrested and imprisoned in 1962, and subsequently sentenced to life imprisonment for conspiring to overthrow the state following the Rivonia Trial.

Mandela served 27 years in prison, split between Robben Island, Pollsmoor Prison, and Victor Verster Prison. Amid growing domestic and international pressure, and with fears of a racial civil war, President F. W. de Klerk released him in 1990. Mandela and de Klerk led efforts to negotiate an end to apartheid, which resulted in the 1994 multiracial general election in which Mandela led the ANC to victory and became president. Leading a broad coalition government which promulgated a new constitution, Mandela emphasised reconciliation between the country's racial groups and created the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses. Economically, Mandela's administration retained its predecessor's liberal framework despite his own socialist beliefs, also introducing measures to encourage land reform, combat poverty, and expand healthcare services. Internationally, he acted as mediator in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial and served as Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999. He declined a second presidential term, and in 1999 was succeeded by his deputy, Thabo Mbeki. Mandela became an elder statesman and focused on combating poverty and HIV/AIDS through the charitable Nelson Mandela Foundation.

Mandela was a controversial figure for much of his life. Although critics on the right denounced him as a communist terrorist and those on the far-left deemed him too eager to negotiate and reconcile with apartheid's supporters, he gained international acclaim for his activism. Widely regarded as an icon of democracy and social justice, he received more than 250 honours—including the Nobel Peace Prize—and became the subject of a cult of personality. He is held in deep respect within South Africa, where he is often referred to by his Xhosa clan name, Madiba, and described as the "Father of the Nation".



Source: Nelson Mandela
Wales
Ancient Egypt
Dulquer Salmaan
Ousmane Dembélé
Dawn of the Planet of the Apes
Chickenpox
Copper
Zac Efron
Unit 731
Mobile phone
List of U.S. state abbreviations
Ernest Hemingway
Calculator
The Great British Bake Off
Andre Agassi
The Space Between Us (film)
Solange Knowles
No Country for Old Men (film)
Rita Hayworth
Bipolar disorder
V for Vendetta (film)
List of United States stand-up comedians
Persona 5
Sarah Huckabee Sanders
Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom
Ben Simmons
Beowulf
Android version history
List of Hindi film clans
Cleopatra
Kate Mara
Pussy
List of hobbies
Buwaydah
Leaning Tower of Pisa
Python (programming language)
Autonomous sensory meridian response
SZA (singer)
AK-47
Bobby Brown
Rwandan genocide
Andy Kaufman
Angela Bassett
2011 NBA draft
Ken Jeong
Null
Software
Noel Gallagher
Mike Tyson
Spirited Away
Julia Roberts
Eurovision Song Contest 2018
Adele
Atlanta Falcons
Spanish Civil War
List of S&P 500 companies
Kapoor family
Oliver Cromwell
Beauty and the Beast (1991 film)
Menstrual cycle
Baahubali 2: The Conclusion
Mona Lisa
Maisie Williams
Anne Boleyn
FC Barcelona
Kelly Macdonald
Wars of the Roses
Band of Brothers (miniseries)
Daniel Cormier
John Belushi
Alicia Silverstone
World War I
Dua Lipa
List of Marvel Cinematic Universe films
Family of Barack Obama
Amish
Jeremy Irons
Dirty Dancing
Mormons
Pit bull
Pep Guardiola
Gastroenteritis
Buckingham Palace
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Kung Fu Yoga
Steven Seagal
Blake Shelton
Nashville (2012 TV series)
Kimberly Guilfoyle
Jack the Ripper
Dzhokhar Tsarnaev
Rani Padmini
John Ritter
Johanna Konta
The Dark Knight Rises
Jennifer Morrison
Julia Stiles
Albania
Eritrea
R. Kelly
Grace Jones
Alexa Bliss
Reema Lagoo
Sweden
Marvel Comics
List of tallest buildings
Asperger syndrome
Che Guevara
Pocahontas
Armenian Genocide
Scott Peterson
Bam Margera
David Walliams
Noomi Rapace
2 Broke Girls
The Hunger Games
Floyd Mayweather Jr.
Mindhunter (TV series)
Katey Sagal
Friday the 13th (franchise)
Joan of Arc
Huntington's disease
Pangolin
American Beauty (1999 film)
Rob Lowe
Libya
Spider
Argentina national football team
Akkineni Nagarjuna
Conan O'Brien
XXXTentacion
Chris Martin
Australia
Daenerys Targaryen
Stephen Hawking
Rob McElhenney
Rian Johnson
Julian Assange
Kevin Bacon
Edmund Kemper
Great white shark
Tara Palmer-Tomkinson
United States Army
Jack Ma
Elimination Chamber (2017)
Kim Jong-nam
Ringo Starr
New England
Psoriasis
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
American Assassin
Ava Gardner
Mercury (element)
Lauren Graham
Washington, D.C.
Josh Groban
Kiss (band)
Richard Harris
Nikita Khrushchev
VX (nerve agent)
Sci-Hub
Mesopotamia
Pretty Little Liars (season 7)
Physics
Whoopi Goldberg
Jason Sudeikis
La Liga
South Park: The Fractured but Whole
American Horror Story: Cult
Silk Road
Richard Ramirez
Orgasm
Alice Cooper
Erwin Rommel
The Deuce (TV series)
Dan Aykroyd
Ryan Seacrest
Imagine Dragons
XXX (2002 film)
Eazy-E
Auschwitz concentration camp
Vincent van Gogh
Michelin Guide
Leonard Cohen
Jewel (singer)
The Guardian
Indus Valley Civilisation
Anthony Rapp
Disha Patani
Brave New World
Leon Trotsky
List of best-selling albums
The Great Gatsby
Nam Joo-hyuk
Kiara Advani
George Washington
Rosario Dawson
Fastlane (2017)
Cthulhu
Simon Pegg
TIPS: To create new content for your website or blog...
  1. Enter the title of a Wikipedia article in the box above.
  2. Select your options using the checkboxes, or use default settings.
  3. Click the 'go' button to retrieve the article.
  4. Click the 'Copy Code' button to copy the source code of the article to your clipboard.
  5. Paste the source code into your favorite HTML editor.
  6. Edit the content to suit your needs.
  7. Publish your new content to your website or blog.
  8. IMPORTANT: Before publishing, be sure to make significant changes to avoid creating duplicate content.
buy this site
Custom Website Development