In the Republic of India, a chief minister is the head of government of each of twenty-nine states and two union territories (Delhi and Puducherry). According to the Constitution of India, at the state-level, the governor is de jure head, but de facto executive authority rests with the chief minister. Following elections to the state legislative assembly, the governor usually invites the party (or coalition) with a majority of seats to form the government. The governor appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. Given he has the assembly's confidence, the chief minister's term is usually for a maximum of five years; there are no limits to the number of terms he or she can serve.
Since June 2018, the office of Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir has been vacant; President's rule is in force there. Of the thirty incumbents, only one is a woman—Mamata Banerjee in West Bengal. Serving since March 2000 (for 19 years, 171 days), Odisha's Naveen Patnaik has the longest incumbency. Amarinder Singh (b. 1942) of Punjab is the oldest chief minister while Arunachal Pradesh's Pema Khandu (b. 1979) is the youngest. Thirteen incumbents belong to the Bharatiya Janata Party and five to the Indian National Congress; no other party has more than one chief minister in office.