images links abstract
Wiki Code Copy Tips Home

Jim Crow laws

Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States. All were enacted in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by white Democratic-dominated state legislatures after the Reconstruction period. The laws were enforced until 1965. In practice, Jim Crow laws mandated racial segregation in all public facilities in the states of the former Confederate States of America, starting in the 1870s and 1880s, and were upheld in 1896, by the U.S. Supreme Court's "separate but equal" legal doctrine for facilities for African Americans, established with the court's decision in the case of Plessy vs. Ferguson. Moreover, public education had essentially been segregated since its establishment in most of the South, after the Civil War (1861–65).

The legal principle of "separate, but equal" racial segregation was extended to public facilities and transportation, including the coaches of interstate trains and buses. Facilities for African Americans and Native Americans were consistently inferior and underfunded, compared to the facilities for white Americans; sometimes there were no facilities for people of color. As a body of law, Jim Crow institutionalized economic, educational, and social disadvantages for African Americans, and other people of color living in the south. Legalized racial segregation principally existed in the Southern states, while Northern and Western racial segregation generally was a matter of fact — enforced in housing with private covenants in leases, bank lending-practices, and employment-preference discrimination, including labor-union practices.

Jim Crow laws—sometimes, as in Florida, part of state constitutions—mandated the segregation of public schools, public places, and public transportation, and the segregation of restrooms, restaurants, and drinking fountains for whites and blacks. The U.S. military was already segregated. President Woodrow Wilson, a Southern Democrat, initiated segregation of federal workplaces in 1913.

These Jim Crow laws revived principles of the 1865 and 1866 Black Codes, which had previously restricted the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans. Segregation of public (state-sponsored) schools was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education. In some states it took many years to implement this decision. Generally, the remaining Jim Crow laws were overruled by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, but years of action and court challenges have been needed to unravel the many means of institutional discrimination.



Source: Jim Crow laws
Animal
Jodie Foster
Fleetwood Mac
Charles Dickens
Measles
Tropical cyclone
Vikram (actor)
Summer Phoenix
Watchmen (film)
XVideos
The Walking Dead (season 8)
Elsa Pataky
Brooklyn Nine-Nine
Frank Sinatra
Daredevil (TV series)
Drew Brees
Kane (wrestler)
Kendall Jenner
Mar-a-Lago
Resident Evil: The Final Chapter
Mark Wahlberg
United States Air Force
Justice League
MacGyver (2016 TV series)
National Hockey League
Homo sapiens
Kubo and the Two Strings
Thanos
Che Guevara
Mao Zedong
Slender Man
The Shape of Water (film)
Emily Browning
Soviet Union
Tom Jones (singer)
Quinoa
Battle of Dunkirk
Jada Pinkett Smith
Bed size
IBM
Blockchain
Scotland
The Avengers (2012 film)
The Legend of Tarzan (film)
Paul Rudd
Brad Pitt
La La Land (film)
Glen Campbell
SpongeBob SquarePants
Charles Kushner
Matt Hardy
Lady Bird (film)
Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone
Star Wars (film)
Edward VII
The Walking Dead (season 7)
Giovanni Ribisi
Ernest Hemingway
Lisa Kudrow
Fifty Shades Freed
UFC 218
Mother's Day
Golden Retriever
Steve Buscemi
QR code
Peggy Lipton
Robbie Amell
Macklemore
Brie Larson
National Football League
John Wayne
Sofía Vergara
Rod Stewart
Jordan Spieth
List of Game of Thrones episodes
2016 Indian banknote demonetisation
Benito Mussolini
India national cricket team
American Psycho (film)
Educational technology
Dax Shepard
Los Angeles Lakers
Indian Premier League
Lacey Chabert
Jensen Ackles
Africa
Confederate States of America
Gregg Allman
Mark Harmon
Gigi Hadid
Oskar Schindler
59th Annual Grammy Awards
Paris Jackson (actress)
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Gugu Mbatha-Raw
Leonardo DiCaprio
Ego the Living Planet
One Piece
Josef Mengele
Versailles (TV series)
Jonah Hill
Al Pacino
Raspberry Pi
Miguel Ferrer
Lea Michele
Ecuador
Ray Donovan
American football
Leighton Meester
Deion Sanders
Facebook
Charlotte Riley
Olivia de Havilland
Harry Potter (film series)
Robert E. Lee
Rob Kardashian
Billie Jean King
Star-Lord
David Schwimmer
Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen
Band of Brothers (miniseries)
Emmy Rossum
List of Naruto: Shippuden episodes
Dyslexia
United States Senate special election in Alabama, 2017
Jab Harry Met Sejal
Alanis Morissette
History of the Internet
Arrow (TV series)
Gaslighting
Education in Hong Kong
Light-emitting diode
James Mattis
Louis XVI of France
AFC Ajax
Janelle Monáe
Old Man Logan
Virtual private network
Captain America: The First Avenger
Beastie Boys
Neptune
Scott Eastwood
Shape of You
Ethanol
Wonder Woman
Spectre (2015 film)
Metformin
Willem Dafoe
Economics
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Five Nights at Freddy's
Led Zeppelin
Saturday Night Live
Kal Penn
The Greatest Showman
Justine Musk
Frank Abagnale
Bhutan
Bad Credit
Commonwealth of Nations
Marxism
Sterling K. Brown
Latin
Eurovision Song Contest 2017
Judaism
Sebastian Gorka
Annette Bening
Nicholas Hoult
Gender
List of Marvel Cinematic Universe films
Jeremy Irons
Gini coefficient
Barron Trump
Stephen King
Wind River (film)
Chris Paul
Joel Embiid
War Machine (film)
Vladimir Lenin
Damian Lewis
The Book of Mormon (musical)
Henry VIII of England
Kristen Wiig
PayPal
Stephanie McMahon
Muslim
A Cure for Wellness
Seinfeld
Allison Janney
Susan Sarandon
Steve Perry
Taapsee Pannu
Sienna Miller
Lil Yachty
Budapest
Girls' Generation
Kaabil
Microsoft
Pornography
Kevin Spacey
TIPS: To create new content for your website or blog...
  1. Enter the title of a Wikipedia article in the box above.
  2. Select your options using the checkboxes, or use default settings.
  3. Click the 'go' button to retrieve the article.
  4. Click the 'Copy Code' button to copy the source code of the article to your clipboard.
  5. Paste the source code into your favorite HTML editor.
  6. Edit the content to suit your needs.
  7. Publish your new content to your website or blog.
  8. IMPORTANT: Before publishing, be sure to make significant changes to avoid creating duplicate content.
buy this site
Custom Website Development