Jammu and Kashmir ( and (listen)) is a state in India, located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, and a part of the larger region of Kashmir, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947.
The underlying region of this state was the southern and eastern part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, whose western districts, now known as Azad Kashmir, and northern territories, now known as Gilgit-Baltistan, are administered by Pakistan. The Aksai Chin region in the east, bordering Tibet, has been under Chinese control since 1962. After the Government of India repealed the special status accorded to Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 of the Indian constitution, the Parliament of India passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, which seeks to dissolve the state and reorganise it into two union territories – Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. The act will come into effect from 31 October 2019.
Jammu and Kashmir consists of three regions: (a) the Kashmir Valley, which accounts for 54.9% of the population of Jammu and Kashmir, and 15.7% of the area; 96.4% of the Valley's population is Muslim; (b) the Jammu Division, which accounts for 42.9% of the population of Jammu and Kashmir, and 25.9% of its area; 62.5% of Jammu's population is Hindu, and 33.5% Muslim; (c) and Ladakh, which accounts for 2.8% of the population of Jammu and Kashmir and 58.4% of its area; Muslims constitute 46.6% of the population of Ladakh, Buddhists 39.7%, and Hindus, 12.1%. Overall, in the state, Muslims constitute 68.31% of the population, Hindus 28.43%, Sikhs 1.87% and Buddhists 0.89%. Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India with a Muslim-majority population.