images links abstract
Wiki Code Copy Tips Home

Dopamine

Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body. It is an amine synthesized by removing a carboxyl group from a molecule of its precursor chemical L-DOPA, which is synthesized in the brain and kidneys. Dopamine is also synthesized in plants and most animals. In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by neurons (nerve cells) to send signals to other nerve cells. The brain includes several distinct dopamine pathways, one of which plays a major role in the motivational component of reward-motivated behavior. The anticipation of most types of rewards increases the level of dopamine in the brain, and many addictive drugs increase dopamine release or block its reuptake into neurons following release. Other brain dopamine pathways are involved in motor control and in controlling the release of various hormones. These pathways and cell groups form a dopamine system which is neuromodulatory.

In popular culture and media, dopamine is often seen as the main chemical of pleasure, but the current opinion in pharmacology is that dopamine instead confers motivational salience; in other words, dopamine signals the perceived motivational prominence (i.e., the desirability or aversiveness) of an outcome, which in turn propels the organism's behavior toward or away from achieving that outcome.

Outside the central nervous system, dopamine functions primarily as a local paracrine messenger. In blood vessels, it inhibits norepinephrine release and acts as a vasodilator (at normal concentrations); in the kidneys, it increases sodium excretion and urine output; in the pancreas, it reduces insulin production; in the digestive system, it reduces gastrointestinal motility and protects intestinal mucosa; and in the immune system, it reduces the activity of lymphocytes. With the exception of the blood vessels, dopamine in each of these peripheral systems is synthesized locally and exerts its effects near the cells that release it.

Several important diseases of the nervous system are associated with dysfunctions of the dopamine system, and some of the key medications used to treat them work by altering the effects of dopamine. Parkinson's disease, a degenerative condition causing tremor and motor impairment, is caused by a loss of dopamine-secreting neurons in an area of the midbrain called the substantia nigra. Its metabolic precursor L-DOPA can be manufactured; Levodopa, a pure form of L-DOPA, is the most widely used treatment for Parkinson's. There is evidence that schizophrenia involves altered levels of dopamine activity, and most antipsychotic drugs used to treat this are dopamine antagonists which reduce dopamine activity. Similar dopamine antagonist drugs are also some of the most effective anti-nausea agents. Restless legs syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with decreased dopamine activity. Dopaminergic stimulants can be addictive in high doses, but some are used at lower doses to treat ADHD. Dopamine itself is available as a manufactured medication for intravenous injection: although it cannot reach the brain from the bloodstream, its peripheral effects make it useful in the treatment of heart failure or shock, especially in newborn babies.



Source: Dopamine
Rod Stewart
Eva Mendes
France national football team
Amitabh Bachchan
NCIS (TV series)
Rowan Atkinson
The New York Times
Spanish language
Mariah Carey
Michael Schumacher
Matt Smith (actor)
Julius Caesar
Amino acid
United Kingdom
Julian Assange
Ex Machina (film)
James Brown
Google Search
IPad
Demi Lovato
Annabelle (film)
Amy Winehouse
Chloë Grace Moretz
Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II
The Last of Us
Winston Churchill
Kimberly Guilfoyle
Kellyanne Conway
Park Hyung-sik
Apple Inc.
Microsoft Windows
Bray Wyatt
The Good Place
Dak Prescott
Inferno (Dante)
Nazi Party
International Standard Book Number
Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. (season 4)
Memorial Day
Samsung
Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569)
Germany national football team
Kong: Skull Island
Middle-earth: Shadow of War
Jesse Plemons
Justice League
Jumanji
Paris Saint-Germain F.C.
Christopher Nolan
Prince Harry
Sylvester Stallone
One-Punch Man
Hilarie Burton
Queen Elizabeth II
Carol Burnett
Last Man Standing (U.S. TV series)
Mulholland Drive (film)
Garbiñe Muguruza
Swami Vivekananda
List of Homeland episodes
Theresa May
Tom and Jerry
Wayne Gretzky
Democracy
2017 in South Korean music
PK (film)
Stanford University
Global warming
Mammal
Moon Lovers: Scarlet Heart Ryeo
Jackie (2016 film)
Elisabeth Moss
Schizophrenia
Kaitlin Olson
Home Alone
Donald Trump Jr.
Rotten Tomatoes
The Huntsman: Winter's War
Julia Stiles
Angus Young
Sia (musician)
Christina Ricci
The Defenders (miniseries)
Black Panther (film)
Paul Walker
Hong Kong
Ron Jeremy
Bitcoin
Kikaider
Lithium
Chris Stapleton
Estonia
Milo Yiannopoulos
Google Classroom
Richard Ramirez
Fred Armisen
Jane the Virgin
Dele Alli
Flat Earth
Olympic Games
Sara Gilbert
XXX (film series)
Kaabil
Michael Landon
Luke Hemsworth
Madagascar
Elle Fanning
Bubonic plague
Capitalism
Tamannaah
Kodak Black
Seth Green
Borussia Dortmund
Helena Bonham Carter
Gareth Bale
Eurovision Song Contest 2017
Ajith Kumar
RSS
Indian Army
Kristen Stewart
Fifty Shades Freed
Cardi B
Lord Voldemort
Slipknot (band)
Charlie Rose
Tropical cyclone
Stellan Skarsgård
Téa Leoni
Carole King
John Heard (actor)
H. R. McMaster
Dark web
Lil Wayne
Frankie Muniz
Jeremy Allen White
Cock ring
Julia Michaels
Family of Donald Trump
Mauritius
The Wachowskis
Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides
UNESCO
Grenada
Mom (film)
The Goldbergs (2013 TV series)
Damon Albarn
Taboo (2017 TV series)
Wiki
Computer science
Raw (film)
David Hahn
Hanukkah
The Blacklist (TV series)
Lil Pump
Spartacus
Jackie Chan
Seattle
James Spader
Charlie Hunnam
Sam Heughan
Citizen Kane
List of current Indian chief ministers
24: Legacy
Joe Jonas
Payday loan
Dhanush
Abigail Breslin
British Raj
Guyana
Ousmane Dembélé
Andorra
Louis XIV of France
Paul Simon
Dark Matter (TV series)
United States Virgin Islands
Weight class (boxing)
WWE
Jhené Aiko
2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup
Music download
Mark Ruffalo
Assassination of John F. Kennedy
Wonder Woman (2017 film)
Steven Tyler
Alexa Internet
Linkin Park
Nicholas II of Russia
Jennifer Lawrence
Tekken 7
Dyslexia
Shameless (season 8)
Bruce Willis
Riverdale (2017 TV series)
Will Ferrell
Chemtrail conspiracy theory
Carson Wentz
Abraham
Liza Minnelli
Sean Combs
DNA
TIPS: To create new content for your website or blog...
  1. Enter the title of a Wikipedia article in the box above.
  2. Select your options using the checkboxes, or use default settings.
  3. Click the 'go' button to retrieve the article.
  4. Click the 'Copy Code' button to copy the source code of the article to your clipboard.
  5. Paste the source code into your favorite HTML editor.
  6. Edit the content to suit your needs.
  7. Publish your new content to your website or blog.
  8. IMPORTANT: Before publishing, be sure to make significant changes to avoid creating duplicate content.
buy this site
Custom Website Development