images links abstract
Wiki Code Copy Tips Home

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow. The main symptoms include shortness of breath and cough with sputum production. COPD is a progressive disease, meaning it typically worsens over time. Eventually, everyday activities such as walking or getting dressed become difficult. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are older terms used for different types of COPD. The term "chronic bronchitis" is still used to define a productive cough that is present for at least three months each year for two years. Those with such a cough are at a greater risk of developing COPD. The term "emphysema" is also used for the abnormal presence of air or other gas within tissues.

Tobacco smoking is the most common cause of COPD, with factors such as air pollution and genetics playing a smaller role. In the developing world, one of the common sources of air pollution is poorly vented heating and cooking fires. Long-term exposure to these irritants causes an inflammatory response in the lungs, resulting in narrowing of the small airways and breakdown of lung tissue. The diagnosis is based on poor airflow as measured by lung function tests. In contrast to asthma, the airflow reduction does not improve much with the use of a bronchodilator.

Most cases of COPD can be prevented by reducing exposure to risk factors. This includes decreasing rates of smoking and improving indoor and outdoor air quality. While treatment can slow worsening, no cure is known. COPD treatments include smoking cessation, vaccinations, respiratory rehabilitation, and often inhaled bronchodilators and steroids. Some people may benefit from long-term oxygen therapy or lung transplantation. In those who have periods of acute worsening, increased use of medications and hospitalization may be needed.

As of 2015, COPD affected about 174.5 million people (2.4% of the global population). It typically occurs in people over the age of 40. Males and females are affected equally commonly. In 2015, it resulted in 3.2 million deaths, up from 2.4 million deaths in 1990. More than 90% of these deaths occur in the developing world. The number of deaths is projected to increase further because of higher smoking rates in the developing world, and an aging population in many countries. It resulted in an estimated economic cost of $2.1 trillion in 2010.



Source: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Aaron Rodgers
The Shining (film)
Lisa Marie Presley
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne
Lion (2016 film)
Suits (season 7)
Liam Gallagher
September 11 attacks
Cindy Crawford
Doctor Strange (film)
Cellulitis
Grand Slam (tennis)
Natalie Wood
Ayn Rand
Sergio García
University of Oxford
Samsung
Linkin Park
Chechnya
Once Upon a Time (TV series)
Salman Khan
It (2017 film)
Wallis Simpson
John Ritter
Nuclear weapon
Atomic Blonde
Shahid Kapoor
Sex in film
Carol Danvers
Brie Larson
Steven Seagal
The Black Eyed Peas
Judy Garland
Kawhi Leonard
Paul Newman
The Goldbergs (2013 TV series)
Final Fantasy XV
Thor: Ragnarok
Los Angeles Dodgers
Geeta Phogat
Saudi Arabia
The Duffer Brothers
Norman Reedus
Bruce Springsteen
Sophia Loren
Sanjay Dutt
Michelle Pfeiffer
Eva Mendes
High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program
Teresa Palmer
2014 NBA draft
Haiti
Martial law
The Green Mile (film)
13 Hours: The Secret Soldiers of Benghazi
Insurance
Suspicious Partner
Elimination Chamber (2017)
Michael Fassbender
The Troubles
Smallpox
Joseph Goebbels
HIV
Bonnie and Clyde
Inhumans (TV series)
Zack Snyder
Blade Runner
Unsimulated sex
Botulism
List of Knowing Bros episodes
Taylor series
Battle of Okinawa
TLC: Tables, Ladders & Chairs (2017)
The Divergent Series
New York City
Criminal Minds
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Alprazolam
Barack Obama
Randy Orton
List of Telugu films of 2017
Philip Seymour Hoffman
The New York Times
Murder of Laci Peterson
George Harrison
Golden Gate Bridge
Johann Sebastian Bach
Anna Kendrick
Sienna Miller
Korea
12-hour clock
Hong Kong
Kyle MacLachlan
Boy George
Isle of Man
X-Men: Days of Future Past
Vijay Sethupathi
Tool (band)
Apple
Katrina Kaif
Special education
Diane Keaton
Khloé Kardashian
Impeachment in the United States
Alias Grace
Jessica Chastain
Florence Foster Jenkins
Girls' Generation
Hulk Hogan
Diazepam
Allen Iverson
M. Night Shyamalan
Suits (season 6)
Los Angeles
José Santacruz Londoño
Grease (film)
Bessie Coleman
United Kingdom general election, 2015
Volkswagen Group
Suge Knight
Leonardo DiCaprio
Warner Bros.
Ron Perlman
Asia Argento
Omar Khadr
Brendan Fraser
Marla Maples
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Narendra Modi
Mary of Teck
Seal (musician)
Penny Dreadful (TV series)
Dennis Rader
Elizabeth Smart
Krishna
Michael Oher
List of most expensive association football transfers
Sci-Hub
UEFA Champions League
Mary-Louise Parker
Bluetooth
Michael Rooker
Greece
Miranda Cosgrove
IMDb
World War II
Suriya
Ken Jeong
Python (programming language)
Absinthe
Khabib Nurmagomedov
Salman Rushdie
Territories of the United States
Your Name
Qatar
Adrien Brody
Nicki Minaj
Cold War
Edgar Allan Poe
Gorillaz
Goldie Hawn
Sam Worthington
List of Fairy Tail episodes
Strong Woman Do Bong-soon
Carson Wentz
Star Wars sequel trilogy
List of solar eclipses in the 21st century
Ashton Kutcher
Trainspotting (film)
Jane Seymour
1996 in music
Johnny Cash
Gunpowder Plot
Roanoke Colony
Louis XVI of France
Pope Benedict XVI
Muscat and Oman
Al-Qaeda
Sons of Anarchy
Survivor (U.S. TV series)
U.S. Route 66
Cryptocurrency
Ian Somerhalder
SWOT analysis
Nobel Prize
Uma Thurman
Ayahuasca
Hurricane Katrina
Dylan O'Brien
Mongolia
Ancient Rome
Survivor Series (2017)
Winston Churchill
Korean War
Derrick Rose
The Lord of the Rings (film series)
Kim Jong-un
List of Nintendo Switch games
Julio Jones
Studio Ghibli
TIPS: To create new content for your website or blog...
  1. Enter the title of a Wikipedia article in the box above.
  2. Select your options using the checkboxes, or use default settings.
  3. Click the 'go' button to retrieve the article.
  4. Click the 'Copy Code' button to copy the source code of the article to your clipboard.
  5. Paste the source code into your favorite HTML editor.
  6. Edit the content to suit your needs.
  7. Publish your new content to your website or blog.
  8. IMPORTANT: Before publishing, be sure to make significant changes to avoid creating duplicate content.
buy this site
Custom Website Development