Chechnya (; Russian: Чечня́, romanized: Chechnyá; Chechen: Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), officially the Chechen Republic (; Russian: Чече́нская Респу́блика, romanized: Chechénskaya Respúblika; Chechen: Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.
It is located in the North Caucasus, and within 100 kilometres (62 miles) of the Caspian Sea. The capital of the republic is the city of Grozny. As of the 2010 Russian Census, the republic was reported to have a population of 1,268,989 people; however, that number has been questioned by multiple demographers, who think such population growth after two deadly wars is highly implausible.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was split into two parts: the Republic of Ingushetia and the Chechen Republic. The latter proclaimed the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, which sought independence. Following the First Chechen War with Russia, Chechnya gained de facto independence as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. Russian federal control was restored during the Second Chechen War. Since then there has been a systematic reconstruction and rebuilding process, though sporadic fighting continues to take place in the mountains and southern regions into 2019.