images links abstract
Wiki Code Copy Tips Home

Caffeine

Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class. It is the world's most widely consumed psychoactive drug. Unlike many other psychoactive substances, it is legal and unregulated in nearly all parts of the world. There are several known mechanisms of action to explain the effects of caffeine. The most prominent is that it reversibly blocks the action of adenosine on its receptor and consequently prevents the onset of drowsiness induced by adenosine. Caffeine also stimulates certain portions of the autonomic nervous system.

Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline purine, a methylxanthine alkaloid, and is chemically related to the adenine and guanine bases of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). It is found in the seeds, nuts, or leaves of a number of plants native to Africa, East Asia and South America, and helps to protect them against predator insects and to prevent germination of nearby seeds. The most well-known source of caffeine is the coffee bean, a misnomer for the seed of Coffea plants. Beverages containing caffeine are ingested to relieve or prevent drowsiness and to improve performance. To make these drinks, caffeine is extracted by steeping the plant product in water, a process called infusion. Caffeine-containing drinks, such as coffee, tea, and cola, are very popular; as of 2014, 85% of American adults consumed some form of caffeine daily, consuming 164 mg on average.

Caffeine can have both positive and negative health effects. It can treat and prevent the premature infant breathing disorders bronchopulmonary dysplasia of prematurity and apnea of prematurity. Caffeine citrate is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines. It may confer a modest protective effect against some diseases, including Parkinson's disease. Some people experience sleep disruption or anxiety if they consume caffeine, but others show little disturbance. Evidence of a risk during pregnancy is equivocal; some authorities recommend that pregnant women limit consumption to the equivalent of two cups of coffee per day or less. Caffeine can produce a mild form of drug dependence – associated with withdrawal symptoms such as sleepiness, headache, and irritability – when an individual stops using caffeine after repeated daily intake. Tolerance to the autonomic effects of increased blood pressure and heart rate, and increased urine output, develops with chronic use (i.e., these symptoms become less pronounced or do not occur following consistent use).

Caffeine is classified by the US Food and Drug Administration as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Toxic doses, over 10 grams per day for an adult, are much higher than the typical dose of under 500 milligrams per day. A cup of coffee contains 80–175 mg of caffeine, depending on what "bean" (seed) is used and how it is prepared (e.g., drip, percolation, or espresso). Thus it requires roughly 50–100 ordinary cups of coffee to reach the toxic dose. However, pure powdered caffeine, which is available as a dietary supplement, can be lethal in tablespoon-sized amounts.



Source: Caffeine
Linux
Outlander (TV series)
Syd Barrett
List of S&P 500 companies
Bruce Forsyth
Survivor Series (2017)
Jinder Mahal
Aaron Carter
The Mummy (2017 film)
Amy Winehouse
Melissa Benoist
Michael Douglas
Taraji P. Henson
Morocco
Buckingham Palace
Essay
89th Academy Awards
Ellie Kemper
Kama Sutra
Japanese jazz
Cloud computing
Hepatitis C
Katharine Ross
Salman Khan
Russ (rapper)
Assassin's Creed (film)
Charlie Chaplin
Metronidazole
Suits (TV series)
Ryan Gosling
1996 in music
Colombia
Falklands War
Depeche Mode
Khaidi No. 150
Saint Patrick's Day
Battle of the Bulge
The Walking Dead (TV series)
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Ramadan
Mad Max: Fury Road
Tom Cruise
Peaky Blinders
Harry Potter and the Cursed Child
Google Classroom
Airbnb
Knowing Bros
Christina Hendricks
Damian Lewis
Elvis Presley
Vlad the Impaler
Dhanush
Cheryl (entertainer)
Axis powers
Michael Schumacher
Rafael Nadal
National Basketball Association
Sean Spicer
L. Ron Hubbard
Subhas Chandra Bose
Seppuku
David Cassidy
Macaulay Culkin
Mumbai
Sex (book)
Anthony Eden
Mikhail Gorbachev
Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency (TV series)
Britney Spears
Human body
The Book of Mormon (musical)
Duvvada Jagannadham
Idris Elba
Agnosticism
June Carter Cash
LaMelo Ball
Roman Polanski
Albert, Prince Consort
Cars (film)
List of Twin Peaks episodes
Algeria
Christina Ricci
List of Grey's Anatomy episodes
Rise of the Planet of the Apes
Fear the Walking Dead
Margot Robbie
Lovebug
James Franco
Ulysses S. Grant
Prison Break
Jon Hamm
The Championships, Wimbledon
John Stamos
Blac Chyna
Xiaomi
Usain Bolt
Belgium
Selena
Dilip Kumar
Capricorn (astrology)
Hoda Kotb
Brett Favre
2015 NBA draft
Switzerland
Great Depression
Human rights
Jennifer Lopez
Poldark (2015 TV series)
Australia
TLC: Tables, Ladders & Chairs (2017)
Gianni Versace
List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita
Star Trek: Discovery
Common (rapper)
Downton Abbey
Detroit
Slash (musician)
Avengers: Infinity War
List of The Big Bang Theory episodes
Hunter S. Thompson
Rocky Marciano
Mariska Hargitay
United States Bill of Rights
Shiba Inu
Tyra Banks
Sigmund Freud
X-23
Black Panther (film)
Ford Motor Company
Black death
Mesopotamia
Reema Lagoo
The Last Kingdom (TV series)
Mecca
2011 NBA draft
Star Wars Battlefront II (2017 video game)
Wonder Woman
Jayne Mansfield
James Dean
LL Cool J
List of The Vampire Diaries episodes
Jon Favreau
True Detective
Jack Black
Christian Pulisic
South Korea
Gadsden flag
List of The Flash episodes
Six Sigma
Shirley Jones
Cate Blanchett
Sons of Anarchy
The Shawshank Redemption
Ray Charles
Uganda
Andre Agassi
UFC 218
Jallikattu
Richard Dreyfuss
Smallpox
Adrianne Palicki
Aladdin (1992 Disney film)
Chicago
Jared Leto
Happy Death Day
Anne, Queen of Great Britain
Botswana
Washington (state)
Apollo 11
British Empire
Bridget Moynahan
Fairy Tail
Luke Cage (TV series)
Lindsey Stirling
Donald Trump
The Greatest Showman
Linda Cardellini
Thirteen Reasons Why
Bharatiya Janata Party
Burj Khalifa
Pocahontas
Ghost in the Shell
Portia de Rossi
Prison Break (season 5)
Oskar Schindler
The Conjuring 2
Dustin Hoffman
The Room (film)
Danny Trejo
James Stewart
Educational technology
Computer
John Glenn
Luis Suárez
Mark Strong
Barry Gibb
Woodrow Wilson
Kathy Bates
Jim Parsons
List of Mr. Robot episodes
TIPS: To create new content for your website or blog...
  1. Enter the title of a Wikipedia article in the box above.
  2. Select your options using the checkboxes, or use default settings.
  3. Click the 'go' button to retrieve the article.
  4. Click the 'Copy Code' button to copy the source code of the article to your clipboard.
  5. Paste the source code into your favorite HTML editor.
  6. Edit the content to suit your needs.
  7. Publish your new content to your website or blog.
  8. IMPORTANT: Before publishing, be sure to make significant changes to avoid creating duplicate content.
buy this site
Custom Website Development