Alprazolam, sold under the trade name Xanax, among others, is a short-acting benzodiazepine. It is most commonly used in short term management of anxiety disorders, specifically panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Other uses include chemotherapy-induced nausea, together with other treatments. GAD improvement occurs generally within a week. Alprazolam is available by mouth.
Common side effects include sleepiness, depression, headaches, feeling tired, dry mouth, and memory problems. Some of the sedation and tiredness may improve within a few days. Due to concerns about misuse, some do not recommend alprazolam as an initial treatment for panic disorder. Withdrawal or rebound symptoms may occur if use is suddenly decreased. Other rare risks include suicide, possibly due to loss of inhibition. Gradually decreasing the dose over weeks or months may be required. Alprazolam, like other benzodiazepines, acts through the GABAA receptor.
Alprazolam was patented in 1971 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1981. Alprazolam is a Schedule IV controlled substance and is a common drug of abuse. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the United States is less than US$0.03 per dose as of 2018. In 2016, it was the 19th most prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 27 million prescriptions.